About diets – All about diets. How to lose weight. Effective diets
Diet – how much of this sound has merged for the female heart! Men, of course, also “sit” on diets, but somehow they are less associated with them. You say “diet” and immediately imagine an anxious lady. She may be quite skinny to herself, but she still thinks that “it would be necessary to lose a couple of extra pounds”. Another picture – a lover of “delicacies” from McDonald’s, vowing to herself and the entire progressive public that today she is giving her hard-earned money to the “free cash register” for the last time for a cheeseburger, hamburger, French fries and other “delights” of American cuisine.
The word “diet” is Greek. Translated into Russian – a way of life, a diet, a set of rules for eating food by a person or other living organism. A diet can be characterized by factors such as chemical composition, physical properties, the cooking of the food, and the timing and intervals of meals. Diets from different cultures can vary significantly and include or exclude specific foods. Nutritional preferences and dietary choices affect a person’s health.
“Going” on a diet or not is everyone’s personal business. Within reasonable limits, if you do not go too far in the quest to become Kate Moss, diets are good. There are a huge number of them. Numerous women’s magazines, TV shows every day, no, no, yes, they will offer a couple of new diets. For example, they are very fond of talking about all kinds of “stars” who, it seems, only do in life, that they smile from television screens and follow a diet. In the end, in some editorial offices, cunning journalists themselves come up with diets (just like horoscopes, for example), passing them off as those found “in the bottomless chests of folk wisdom.” In general, it is not surprising to get confused, to drown in this endless dietary sea. For the visitors of our portal, we offer a short excursion into nutrition, a kind of lifeline! In any case, if you decide that it’s time for you to follow any diet, be sure to consult with a nutritionist. Only a specialist will be able to choose exactly the diet that is most suitable for your body.
So, diets are different. In fact, they are divided into two main types: a rational diet and a medical diet.
A rational diet would be good, if possible, for all people in general. The fact is that this is the diet of a healthy person, corresponding to the profession, gender, age and other objective and subjective factors. Rational diet – adherence to certain nutritional standards, providing full “coverage” of the body’s energy costs, verified balance of nutrients. In fact, a rational diet is nothing more than a correct, healthy diet; according to nutritionists, it is the best disease prevention. It is a rational diet that is the most important tool for real health promotion. It is understood that food should be healthy and tasty.
If you decide to eat rationally, know that the following components should be present in your menu every day:
- fats are better than vegetable fats, because they do not contain cholesterol;
- vitamins, fiber, mineral salts – they will be provided by vegetables and fruits;
- iron – there is a lot of it in eggs and in the internal organs of animals (heart, liver …);
- calcium, protein – eat cottage cheese (preferably low-fat) and hard cheese;
- a sufficient amount of water – it is better if it is juices or mineral water.
Despite the fact that food with a rational diet, as already mentioned above, should not only be healthy, but also tasty, some of the “goodies” will have to be sacrificed. It is advisable not to eat large quantities of white bread and any baked goods. Better limit yourself to black bread, rye, wholemeal flour. It lowers blood cholesterol levels. In addition, it contains a lot of potassium, which is necessary for maintaining water and electrolyte balance in cells and tissues. Without potassium, the heart and other muscles would not contract, nerve impulses would not be transmitted, blood pressure would “jump”. Of course, you do not need to eat brown bread with rolls – two or three slices per meal will be enough.
You should also limit the consumption of fatty meats, smoked meats, various gravies and sauces. “Sweet killer” – sugar, as well as sweets and other sweets – it is also better to try to eat as little as possible. At least, do not “overdo it”, because some are able to eat a whole can of condensed milk in one “sitting”!
Rational nutrition is not only what we eat. Food still needs to be properly prepared. It is advisable that the cooking does not take much time (that is, the dishes should be quite simple), also control the amount of fat used in the process – the less the better. If you fry something, always do it in a Teflon frying pan, and bake food in foil or parchment. In general, it is better to cook on a wire rack, use a grill. If you cannot do this somewhere in the garden, use an airfryer. This device, in which food is cooked quickly, and without any oil, by blowing hot air, convection, is very useful when following a rational diet. It is advisable not to heat vegetables, but to eat them raw (of course, those that are possible) in salads. Be sure to add fresh herbs to different dishes: dill, parsley, cilantro. The biological value of the food will only increase from this.
At the end of the story about a rational diet, let’s summarize all of the above. So, it is better to start your meal with a light vegetable salad. With it you will satisfy your hunger, a feeling of satiety will arise. In the end, don’t overeat. Eat as many vegetables as possible – these are vitamins and minerals! This is a common truth, but many for some reason forget about it. Eat only lean meat, dairy products too. If something is flour, let it be made from coarse flour, but do not overdo it with rolls. Do not forget about potatoes, be sure to eat rice, other cereals – they are full of healthy carbohydrates. Fatty, fried and sweet – to a minimum. It is also very important not to rush while eating. Quick snacks, stuffing three sandwiches a minute into your mouth are incompatible with a rational diet.
Word to medicine
The diet is medical (or medicinal). It can only be prescribed by a dietitian. When it is “prescribed”, they proceed from functional, pathomorphological, metabolic, enzyme and other disorders in the human body. Very often, a therapeutic diet enhances the action and, accordingly, the best result from the use of various therapeutic agents (if it is necessary in the treatment of any disease). In addition, a medical diet can also be a preventive measure – it slows down the transition of the disease into a chronic form.
A therapeutic diet is prescribed by a doctor both for compliance at home and in a medical and prophylactic, sanatorium-resort institution. There is a so-called “numbered” system of diets. It is also called “Pevznerovskaya”, in honor of the developer – Soviet therapist, scientist-nutritionist, Manuil Isaakovich Pevzner (1872-1952).
The system, developed by M.I. Pevzner, includes 15 basic diets that must be followed for certain diseases. Some diets come in several variations. Further – a complete list of diets (“tables”) according to M.I. Pevzner:
- Table number 1.
- The abatement of the exacerbation of peptic ulcer disease, within 6-12 months. after an exacerbation, as well as with gastritis with high acidity;
- Table number 1a.
- Exacerbation of peptic ulcer, exacerbation of chronic gastritis with high acidity;
- Table number 1b.
- Abatement of exacerbation of peptic ulcer and chronic gastritis with high acidity;
- Table number 2
- Chronic gastritis with low acidity or in its absence, chronic colitis (without exacerbation);
- Table number 3
- Atonic constipation;
- Table number 4
- Acute bowel diseases and exacerbations during the period of ongoing diarrhea;
- Table number 4a
- Colitis with a predominance of fermentation processes;
- Table number 4b
- Chronic colitis in a fading exacerbation stage;
- Table number 4c
- Acute bowel diseases during the recovery period as a transition to a balanced diet; chronic intestinal diseases during the period of exacerbation decay, as well as outside the exacerbation;
- Table number 5
- Diseases of the liver, gallbladder, biliary tract without an exacerbation;
- Table number 5a
- Chronic pancreatitis;
- Table number 6
- Gout, nephrolithiasis with discharge of stones, consisting mainly of urates;
- Table number 7
- Chronic kidney disease with no symptoms of chronic renal failure;
- Table number 7a
- Acute renal diseases (acute nephritis or its exacerbation);
- Table number 7b
- Abatement of an acute inflammatory process in the kidneys;
- Table number 8
- Obesity as an underlying disease or concomitant with other diseases that do not require special diets;
- Table number 9
- Diabetes mellitus of moderate and mild severity;
- Table number 10
- Diseases of the cardiovascular system with circulatory insufficiency of grade I-IIA;
- Table number 11
- Tuberculosis of the lungs, bones, lymph nodes, joints with mild exacerbation or attenuation, exhaustion after infectious diseases, operations, injuries;
- Table number 12
- Functional diseases of the nervous system;
- Table number 13
- Acute infectious diseases;
- Table number 14
- Urolithiasis (phosphaturia);
- Table number 15
- Various diseases that do not require special therapeutic diets.
Any “Pevzner” diet in its description contains the purpose of the appointment, indications for use, a general description of the characteristics of the chemical composition, the set of products, their culinary processing, as well as data on the chemical composition and energy value, diet, on the list of acceptable and contraindicated dishes and products, indicates the methods of their preparation.
So, for example, diet number 5 (“fifth table”) – serves to ensure a gentle chemical regime of the liver, normalize bile secretion, bowel function, unloads fatty cholesterol metabolism. It is indicated for diseases of the gallbladder and liver (during recovery), benign chronic hepatitis, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis.
If you follow it, you can eat: yesterday’s wheat bread, vegetable oil (20-30 g), cereals, pasta, lean meat and boiled fish. In addition, flour non-rich products, vegetable, dairy, cereal and fruit soups are allowed. And also cream, milk, sour cream in moderation, kefir, yogurt, acidophilic milk, cottage cheese. You can eat vegetables, fruits, dried fruits, various compotes, jelly, jelly, honey, as well as jam and all berries, except sour ones.
You cannot eat beef, lamb and pork fat, bacon, fatty dishes, liver, brains, sausage, canned fish and meat, pickles, meat, fish broths, as well as pastry. In addition, you need to eat as little as possible butter, eggs, as well as garlic, onions, dill and parsley (the last quartet – because of their ethereal content).
You now have information on the main types of diets. It is to them that you should contact if necessary, without forgetting to consult a doctor before that. Remember that many of the “trendy diets” have not gone through any clinical trials. Some of them even conflict with modern nutrition.
In the future, we will continue to talk about what diets and types of food are in general. Indeed, on our planet, different peoples have their own culinary traditions, connected not only directly with the cuisine of a particular country, but also, for example, with the nature of food.